Cases of dementia – and the heavy social and financial burdens associated with them – will soar in the coming decades as life expectancy and medical care improve in poorer countries, the World Health Organisation says.
Some 35.6 million people were living with dementia in 2010, but that figure is set to double to 65.7 million by 2030, the United Nations health agency said in Geneva, Switzerland. In 2050, it expects dementia cases to triple to 115.4 million.
“The numbers are already large and are increasing rather rapidly,” said Dr Shekhar Saxena, the head of WHO’s mental health division.
Most dementia patients are cared for by relatives who shoulder the bulk of the current estimated annual cost of £380 billion. And the financial burden is expected to rise even faster than the number of cases, WHO said in its first substantial report on the issue.
“The catastrophic cost drives millions of households below the poverty line,” warned the agency’s director-general, Margaret Chan.
Dementia, a brain illness that affects memory, behaviour and the ability to perform even common tasks, affects mostly older people. About 70% of cases are believed to be caused by Alzheimer’s.
In the last few decades, dementia has become a major public health issue in rich countries. But with populations in poor and middle-income countries projected to grow and age rapidly over the coming decades, WHO appealed for greater public awareness and better support programmes everywhere.
The share of cases in poor and middle-income countries is expected to rise from just under 60% today, to over 70% by 2050.
So far, only eight countries – including Britain, France and Japan – have national programmes to address dementia, WHO said. Several others, such as the United States, have plans at the state level.
While the report shies away from making specific recommendations to policy makers, it does urge them to address the challenges of dementia as soon as possible.
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